Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology

Angiotensin-(1-7) serves as an aquaretic by increasing water intake and diuresis in association with downregulation of aquaporin-1 during pregnancy in rats

J. Joyner, L. A. A. Neves, K. Stovall, C. M. Ferrario, K. B. Brosnihan


We previously demonstrated that kidney and urine levels of angiotensin-(1-7) [ANG-(1-7)] were increased in pregnancy. To explore the role of ANG-(1-7) on fluid and electrolyte homeostasis during pregnancy, we evaluated the effect of the ANG-(1-7) antagonist d-alanine-[ANG-(1-7)] (A-779) on kidney function. Virgin and pregnant rats received infusion of vehicle or A-779 (48 μg·kg−1·h−1) for 8 days by osmotic minipumps. Metabolic studies were done on treatment day 7–8. Virgin and pregnant rats at day 15 and 19 were killed, and blood and kidneys were collected. Kidneys were prepared for Western blot analysis for aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and aquaporin-2. In virgin female rats, A-779 increased urine volume and decreased urinary osmolality and AQP1 with no change in water intake. In 19-day pregnant rats, A-779 significantly decreased water intake and urine volume and increased urinary osmolality and kidney AQP1 expression. Only in late gestation did A-779 treatment decrease the difference between intake and output (balance). A-779 treatment increased plasma vasopressin in late gestation but did not change vasopressin in virgins. In virgin and pregnant animals, A-779 administration had no effect on blood pressure, plasma volume, blood volume, or urinary electrolytes. These results suggest that ANG-(1-7) produces antidiuresis associated with upregulation of AQP1 in virgin rats, whereas ANG-(1-7) produces diuresis in late gestation with downregulation of AQP1. ANG-(1-7) contributes to the enhanced water intake during pregnancy, allowing maintenance of the normal volume-expanded state despite diuresis produced in part by decreased AVP and AQP1.

  • renin-angiotensin system
  • pregnancy
  • angiotensin-(1-7)
  • d-alanine-[angiotensin-(1-7)]
  • d-alanine
  • aquaporin
  • vasopressin
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