Secretoneurin (SN) is a functional neuropeptide derived from the evolutionarily conserved part of precursor protein secretogranin II (SgII). In the time course study, SN (10 nM) stimulates luteinizing hormone (LH) production and secretion after 6 h of static incubation of goldfish pituitary cells. Due to the existence of SN-immunoreactivity (SN-IR) in goldfish lactotrophs, endogenous SN might exert a paracrine effect on LH in the pituitary. In an in vitro immunoneutralization experiment, coincubation with anti-SN antiserum reduces the stimulatory effect of salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH) on LH release by 64%. Using Western blot analysis, we demonstrate that sGnRH significantly increases the expression of the major SgII-derived peptide (∼57 kDa, with SN-IR) and prolactin (PRL) after 12 h in the static culture of goldfish pituitary cells. Furthermore, there exists a significant correlation between the levels of these two proteins (R = 0.76, P = 0.004). Another ∼30 kDa SgII-derived peptide containing SN is only observed in sGnRH-treated pituitary cells. Consistent with the Western blot analysis results, real-time RT-PCR analysis shows that a 12-h treatment with sGnRH induced 1.6- and 1.7-fold increments in SgII and PRL mRNA levels, respectively. SgII gene expression was also associated with PRL gene expression (R = 0.66; P = 0.02). PRL cells loaded with the calcium-sensitive dye, fura 2/AM, respond to sGnRH treatment with increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentration level, suggesting a potential mechanism of GnRH on PRL cells and thus SgII processing and SN secretion. Taken together, endogenous lactotroph-generated SN, under the control of hypothalamic GnRH, exerts a paracrine action on neighboring gonadotrophs to stimulate LH release.
- gonadotropin-releasing hormone
- luteinizing hormone
- intracellular calcium level
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