The subfornical organ (SFO) is a critical circumventricular organ involved in the control of cardiovascular and metabolic homeostasis. Despite the plethora of circulating signals continuously sensed by the SFO, studies investigating how these signals are integrated are lacking. In this study, we use patch-clamp techniques to investigate how the traditionally classified “cardiovascular” hormone ANG II, “metabolic” hormone CCK and “metabolic” signal glucose interact and are integrated in the SFO. Sequential bath application of CCK (10 nM) and ANG (10 nM) onto dissociated SFO neurons revealed that 63% of responsive SFO neurons depolarized to both CCK and ANG; 25% depolarized to ANG only; and 12% hyperpolarized to CCK only. We next investigated the effects of glucose by incubating and recording neurons in either hypoglycemic, normoglycemic, or hyperglycemic conditions and comparing the proportions of responses to ANG (n = 55) or CCK (n = 83) application in each condition. A hyperglycemic environment was associated with a larger proportion of depolarizing responses to ANG (χ2, P < 0.05), and a smaller proportion of depolarizing responses along with a larger proportion of hyperpolarizing responses to CCK (χ2, P < 0.01). Our data demonstrate that SFO neurons excited by CCK are also excited by ANG and that glucose environment affects the responsiveness of neurons to both of these hormones, highlighting the ability of SFO neurons to integrate multiple metabolic and cardiovascular signals. These findings have important implications for this structure’s role in the control of various autonomic functions during hyperglycemia.
- subfornical organ
- autonomic regulation
- angiotensin II
- Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society
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