Diets high in sugar and saturated fat (Western diet) contribute to obesity and pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. A common physiological response to obesity is hypertension, which induces cardiac remodeling and hypertrophy. Hypertrophy is regulated at chromatin by repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor (REST), and pathological hypertrophy is associated with reexpression of a fetal cardiac gene program. Reactivation of fetal genes is commonly observed in hypertension-induced hypertrophy; however, this response is blunted in diabetic hearts, partially due to upregulation of the post-translational modification O-linked-β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) to proteins by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT). OGT and O-GlcNAc are found in chromatin-modifying complexes, but it is unknown if they play a role in Western diet-induced hypertrophic remodeling. Therefore, we investigated the interactions between O-GlcNAc, OGT, and the fetal gene-regulating transcription factor complex REST/mSin3A/histone deacetylase (HDAC). Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a Western (n=12) or control diet (n=12) for two weeks to examine the early hypertrophic response. Western diet fed mice exhibited fasting hyperglycemia and increased body weight (P<0.05). As expected for this short duration of feeding, cardiac hypertrophy was not yet evident. We found that REST is O-GlcNAcylated and physically interacts with OGT in mouse hearts. Western blotting showed that HDAC protein levels were not different between groups; however, relative to controls, Western diet hearts showed increased REST and decreased ANP and skeletal α-actin. Transcript levels of HDAC2 and cardiac α-actin were decreased in Western diet hearts. These data suggest that REST coordinates regulation of diet-induced hypertrophy at the level of chromatin.
- Western Diet
- cardiac hypertrophy
- fetal genes
- Copyright © 2013, American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology