In the adult male testosterone (T) deficiency (TD) is a well-established medical condition, which has been recognized for more than a century. T therapy in men with TD was introduced as early as 1940s and was reported to improve overall health with no concomitant serious adverse effects. A wealth of recent studies demonstrated that T therapy in men with TD is associated with increased lean body mass, reduced fat mass and waist circumference, improvement in glycemic control and reduced obesity. T therapy is also associated with improvements in lipid profiles, amelioration of metabolic syndrome (Met S) components, reduced inflammatory biomarkers, reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure and improvements in sexual function. T therapy is associated with amelioration of diabetes and reduced mortality. However, few studies, marred with serious methodological and analytical flaws reported between 2010 and 2014, suggested that T therapy is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. As summarized in this review, a thorough and critical analysis of these studies showed that the risks purported are unsubstantiated and such studies lacked credible scientific and clinical evidence. Moreover, recent observational, registry studies, clinical trials and meta-analyses, all revealed no increase in CV risks in men receiving T therapy. In this review, the benefits of T therapy in men with TD and the lack of credible evidence suggesting that T therapy is linked to increased CV risks are discussed. It should be noted that the literature is replete with studies demonstrating beneficial effects of T therapy on CV and overall health.
- Testosterone Deficiency
- Testosterone Therapy
- Cardiovascular risk
- Metabolic syndrome
- Copyright © 2016, American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology