Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has traditionally been viewed as a male disease; however, the relative risk for obesity and hypertension morbidity and mortality, major risk factors for CVD, is higher for women in the United States. Emerging epidemiological data strongly supports stressful experiences as a modifiable risk factor for obesity, insulin resistance and heart disease in women at all ages. Therefore, primary prevention of these diseases may be associated with both identifying and increasing the knowledge regarding the gender-differences in emotional functioning associated with physiological responses to stress. The purpose of this review is to highlight the growing body of clinical and experimental studies showing that stress, obesity-associated metabolic disturbances and CVD comorbidities are more prevalent in females. Overall, this review reveals the need for investigations to decipher the early origins of these comorbidities. Targeting the sources of behavioral/emotional stress through life's trajectory has the potential to reduce the alarming projected rates for chronic disease in women.
- gender differences
- cardiovascular disease and stress comorbidities
- nimals models of stress
- Copyright © 2016, American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology