Table 1.

Key characteristics and measurements of healthy lean and nondiabetic obese studied adults

Lean AdultsObese Adults
Characteristics
Number of studied individuals3636
Number of observations323323
BMI, kg/m222 [19–25]38 [31–48]
Age, yr24 [20–32]25 [19–47]
Gender
    Male1818
    Female1818
Glucose doses
    10 g1212
    25 g1212
    75 g1212
Characteristics per doses
10 g25 g75 g10 g25 g75 g
Baseline glucose, mmol/l4.9 [4.3–5.5]4.7 [4.5–5.1]4.8 [4.5–5.5]5.2 [4.7–5.6]5.1 [4.6–6.0]5.2 [4.7–5.7]
Glucose at 30 min, mmol/l6.1 [4.7–7.4]6.8 [5.4–8.5]7.4 [5.0–8.4]6.4 [5.4–6.9]7.7 [5.3–8.5]8.9 [6.7–10.0]
Glucose at 120 min, mmol/l4.8 [4.3–5.2]4.4 [4.0–5.0]5.3 [2.9–6.3]4.9 [4.7–5.3]4.6 [4.4–5.1]6.2 [3.6–8.9]
Baseline insulin, μU/ml4.3 [2.5–6.9]3.9 [2.0–8.9]3.5 [2.4–8.1]15.1 [6.1–29.1]14.7 [5.7–34.7]10.8 [8.2–17.6]
Insulin at 30 min, μU/ml9.2 [5.9–15.2]18.3 [8.2–52.3]33.7 [9.9–85.7]34.0 [17.7–183.4]59.5 [20.4–143.5]74.3 [37.0–136.8]
Insulin at 120 min, μU/ml2.4 [2.0–7.0]3.1 [2.0–5.7]18.0 [2.2–40.9]10.8 [6.9–25.3]12.0 [4.4–28.8]43.5 [11.5–176.5]
Gastric emptying at 30 min, %dose/h31.8 [26.6–39.7]24.7 [18.0–34.0]15.1*26.8 [21.9–38.0]25.4 [16.4–31.3]14.3 [9.6–25.1]
Gastric emptying at 120 min, %dose/h11.3 [9.4–13.9]11.6 [8.1–14.5]13.8*10.0 [8.1–14.5]9.6 [8.1–14.1]10.5 [6.9–14.0]
T50% gastric emptying, h59 [49–79] NA: 1 individual79 [42–95] NA: 1 individualNA48 [37–85] NA: 3 individuals71 [40–103] NA: 3 individuals113 [54–206]
Baseline GIP, pg/ml120.0 [120.0–375.9]120.0 [120.0–414.5]120.0 [120.0–167.2]120.0 [120.0–171.3]120.0 [120.0–185.7]120.0 [120.0–143.7]
GIP at 30 min, pg/ml202.3 [120.0–429.1]365.1 [173.1–725.2]429.8 [272.0–755.1]148.9 [120.0–265.7]326.6 [190.5–638.0]475.1 [266.2–1049]
GIP at 120 min, pg/ml120. [120.0–350.7]120.0 [120.0–383.6]332.1 [155.6–958.0]120.0 [120.0–181.2]120.0 [120.0–182.4]279.6 [120–468.7]
Baseline GLP-1, pg/ml10.5 [4.5–41.0]10.4 [4.7–17.1]15.5 [6.7–35.2]11.2 [5.9–26.0]12.8 [8.0–35.5]17.1 [7.5–36.9]
GLP-1 at 30 min, pg/ml12.0 [5.0–30.2]22.4 [11.7–53.9]61.6 [29.6–165.2]11.4 [7.1–25.5]18.5 [10.3–53.6]53.8 [33.9–206.5]
GLP-1 at 120 min, pg/ml7.8 [3.6–14.4]10.1 [6.2–16.0]25.8 [5.8–84.8]9.5 [7.0–24.1]10.3 [8.1–26.4]23.2 [8.6–98.0]
Baseline C-peptide, ng/ml3.7 [1.9–7.1]3.3 [1.7–5.9]3.7 [2.4–9.0]6.0 [3.6–9.6]6.1 [3.8–11.1]7.1 [5.4–11.1]
C-peptide at 30 min, ng/ml5.1 [2.5–14.6]6.2 [3.0–16.0]13.1 [7.2–16.0]10.5 [7.4–16.0]15.1 [9.9–16.0]15.6 [11.0–28.7]
C-peptide at 120 min, ng/ml3.0 [1.4–5.7]3.1 [2.0–6.1]7.3 [4.5–16.0]5.4 [2.9–8.5]5.7 [3.0–9.0]11.7 [4.3–19.5]
Baseline insulin/C-peptide ratio, nmol/l0.2 [0.1–0.3]0.2 [0.1–0.3]0.2 [0.1–0.3]0.5 [0.2–0.7]0.3 [0.2–0.9]0.3 [0.2–0.5]
Insulin/C-peptide ratio at 30 min, nmol/l0.3 [0.2–0.8]0.5 [0.2–0.9]0.4 [0.2–1.2]0.5 [0.3–2.5]0.7 [0.4–1.6]0.9 [0.4–1.6]
Insulin/C-peptide ratio at 120 min, nmol/l0.2 [0.1–0.5]0.2 [0.1–0.3]0.3 [0.1–1.0]0.4 [0.2–0.9]0.4 [0.1–0.8]0.6 [0.4–2.2]
Baseline HOMA-IR0.8 [0.5–1.7]0.8 [0.5–1.7]0.9 [0.5–1.7]3.4 [1.6–6.6]3.9 [1.6–6.6]3.6 [2.0–6.6]
  • Independence of occasions was assumed and each “individual + glucose dose occasion” was considered as one study individual. Data are presented as median [minimum-maximum] or number of studied individuals (%). GIP, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide; GLP-1, glucagon-like peptide-1; HOMA-IR, index for homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; NA, not available.

  • * Gastric emptying for lean healthy adults receiving 75 g of glucose has been replaced by the median gastric emptying profile from two previous trials performed in the same conditions (12, 42).