Table 5.

Group differences in all scores from each day of the standing test

Variable/GroupAcuteSubacuteWeek 1Week 2
HRmax/HRmin
    Concussed1.8 ± 0.4*1.5 ± 0.31.5 ± 0.21.5 ± 0.2
    Control1.5 ± 0.21.6 ± 0.21.5 ± 0.21.6 ± 0.2
SBPunder, mmHg
    Concussed45.0 ± 17.834.8 ± 17.829.3 ± 16.135.8 ± 11.7
    Control26.0 ± 11.929.5 ± 14.034.4 ± 8.537.1 ± 15.8
DBPunder, mmHg
    Concussed29.9 ± 8.125.4 ± 8.223.8 ± 9.925.8 ± 6.7
    Control24.1 ± 7.326.4 ± 9.828.5 ± 9.430.5 ± 8.7
SBPover, mmHg
    Concussed23.8 ± 13.129.6 ± 13.623.3 ± 17.423.8 ± 15.4
    Control27.3 ± 9.223.6 ± 11.119.8 ± 17.219.9 ± 11.0
DBPover, mmHg
    Concussed17.0 ± 7.120.3 ± 11.217.5 ± 12.022.9 ± 22.8
    Control17.8 ± 14.414.3 ± 8.614.6 ± 6.712.6 ± 6.5
SBPstand mean, mmHg
    Concussed141.6 ± 20.9132.4 ± 9.1132.3 ± 13.4129.8 ± 19.7
    Control127.3 ± 9.8124.9 ± 8.5124.7 ± 11.4123.9 ± 13.1
DBPstand mean, mmHg
    Concussed87.1 ± 15.880.8 ± 5.481.7 ± 9.679.5 ± 15.4
    Control78.8 ± 6.077.4 ± 5.877.3 ± 7.876.9 ± 9.0
  • Values are means ± SD. HRmax/HRmin, highest initial peak HR score divided by the subsequent lowest HR score. SBPunder, lowest systolic blood pressure score during the undershoot subtracted from the SBP baseline mean pressure. DBPunder, lowest diastolic blood pressure score during the undershoot subtracted from the DBP baseline mean pressure. SBPover, highest systolic blood pressure score during the overshoot minus the SBP baseline mean pressure. DBPover, highest diastolic blood pressure score during the overshoot minus the DBP baseline mean pressure. SBPstand mean, mean systolic pressure during the final 4 min of standing. DBPstand mean, diastolic pressure during the final 4 min of standing.

  • * Significant difference between the concussed and control participants (t21 = 2.33, P = 0.03, d = 1.01).

  • Significant difference between the concussed and control participants (t21 = 2.98, P = 0.01, d = 1.24).

  • There was a significant group × time interaction with the DBPunder scores (F3,63 = 4.41, P = 0.01, ηp2 = 0.17), but none of the follow-up comparisons reached statistical significance.