Table 7.

Group differences in all scores from each day of the Valsalva test

Variable/GroupAcuteSubacuteWeek 1Week 2
HRmax/HRmin
    Concussed1.9 ± 0.41.9 ± 0.41.8 ± 0.41.9 ± 0.4
    Control1.8 ± 0.32.0 ± 0.42.0 ± 0.52.0 ± 0.5
SBP1st peak, mmHg
    Concussed33.3 ± 13.333.2 ± 10.034.9 ± 9.434.2 ± 11.5
    Control29.5 ± 9.534.7 ± 15.737.7 ± 16.037.3 ± 22.8
DBP1st peak, mmHg
    Concussed29.0 ± 12.027.2 ± 13.828.8 ± 8.328.7 ± 12.0
    Control27.9 ± 13.128.5 ± 11.029.5 ± 11.830.6 ± 15.6
SBPunder, mmHg
    Concussed29.2 ± 25.830.6 ± 30.123.9 ± 12.221.7 ± 14.5
    Control12.5 ± 9.613.2 ± 15.715.2 ± 12.413.6 ± 18.6
DBPunder, mmHg
    Concussed6.2 ± 13.95.4 ± 16.48.8 ± 10.45.3 ± 14.6
    Control3.9 ± 17.3−2.5 ± 11.34.4 ± 12.2−0.1 ± 13.6
SBPover, mmHg
    Concussed27.1 ± 18.732.0 ± 18.230.7 ± 20.226.8 ± 11.5
    Control28.7 ± 20.332.9 ± 18.722.5 ± 20.830.7 ± 15.9
DBPover, mmHg
    Concussed17.7 ± 9.619.8 ± 12.921.8 ± 13.116.3 ± 10.8
    Control22.0 ± 18.121.4 ± 14.616.2 ± 14.019.0 ± 9.5
90% SBPnorm, s
    Concussed9.7 ± 2.0*9.8 ± 3.87.6 ± 2.87.3 ± 3.2
    Control6.7 ± 3.46.7 ± 3.77.4 ± 4.77.5 ± 4.5
  • Values are means ± SD. HRmax/HRmin, highest initial peak HR score divided by the subsequent lowest HR score. SBP1st peak, highest systolic blood pressure score during the initial overshoot minus the SBP baseline mean pressure. DBP1st peak, highest diastolic blood pressure score during the initial overshoot minus the DBP baseline mean pressure. SBPunder, lowest systolic blood pressure score during the undershoot subtracted from the SBP baseline mean pressure. DBPunder, lowest diastolic blood pressure score during the undershoot subtracted from the DBP baseline mean pressure. SBPover, highest systolic blood pressure score during the overshoot minus the SBP baseline mean pressure. DBPover, highest diastolic blood pressure score during the overshoot minus the DBP baseline mean pressure. 90% SBPnorm, interval between the SBPover score and the point in which SBP had decreased by 90% of the difference between the SBPover and SBP baseline mean.

  • * Significant difference between the concussed and control participants (t21 = 2.64, P = 0.02, d = 1.10).